If I were to ask you, if you would help a stranger who was being attacked on the street, what would you answer? The most common answer would instinctively be yes, right?

However, while there are several occurrences when people help other humans in need, there are also a part of society who avoid getting involved and helping people who are clearly in need of help.

Four 911 calls were registered, but by the time firefighters arrived on the scene, Hugo was already dead. The last story Sarah mentions is the death of only two-year-old James Bulger who was kidnapped by two boys

who were only 10 years old, at the time. 38 people watched them walk away from the mall with two-year-old James. And again, none of them did anything. Why does no one step in?

This is the cause of the bystander effect. We live in this vicious circle where we wait around for someone else to act, and this causes in the end for no one to act.

These three stories that Sarah uses in her article are examples of consequences of the bystander effect. She uses pathos to appeal to the reader's emotions.