Urbanization in Denmark during the industrialization | Noter DHO

Account for the urbanization in Denmark during the industrialization

Analyze the living standards of the working class based on the following sources: Brendekilde’s painting “Udslidt” (1889), Henningsen’s” En såret arbejder” (1895) and Louis Pio’s "Fabrikarbejderne" (1871)

Painting “Udslidt” painted by Hans Andersen Brendekilde in 1889.

Henningsens ” En såret arbejder” (1895)

Louis Pio: "Fabrikarbejderne", 1871

Discuss whether the above-mentioned sources offer a historically viable representation of the conditions of the working class.

Henningsens” En såret arbejder” (1895)

Louis Pio: "Fabrikarbejderne", 1871

The industrialization is a term used to describe the period from 1850-1920. In that period the industries’ role in the society increased due to massive technology development.

This changes the production methods. For example, was the steam engine invented, so it was a lot easier to transport and produce goods.

The reason for this industrialization was mainly due to the urbanization. Urbanization is when a larger concentration of a society’s citizens is moving from the countryside into the cities. In Denmark urbanization took off from the 1840 and onwards.

In the start of this Denmark was still an agricultural society, where most of the people lived in the country. In that time did only 20% lived in the cities.

The cities had the ramparts or fences around them so there wasn’t much space for the citizens inside the cities. In 1850, when the ramparts around Copenhagen got discontinued, started the city to grow rapidly.

When there was space for the many people, that moved from the country into the cities. The first neighbourhoods occurred in Copenhagen has the three so-called “bro” neighbourhoods. They are called Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Østerbro.

There were multiple reasons for why the citizens moved into the cities. Due to industrialization, there became many new jobs, so it was easy to get a job and earn money.

When the Freedom of Trade Act got introduced in 1858, there was no need for any special permission to run a company. That influenced people and they started to move into the cities and start their own business.

And with the invention steam engine and in general machine power and the number of companies increased rapidly.

In 1872, 1.500 industrial companies employed 37.000 workers, and by 1914 the number had increased to 4.500 companies and 134.000 workers.

For all the new workers there became good association life, politically and socially. The first community centres were started in this period. People meat other newcomers in these community centres and they got a network of other people.

The newcomers got helps by the citizens to get a job and a place to live through these community centres. Schools, hospitals, banks and museums, was also built during this period.

There became expanded also transportation systems, so it was easier to move into the cities from the country.

Around the 1850’s the population of Denmark was approximately 1.3 million. In 1870, that had increased to around 1.8 million, and by 1890 Denmark had reached 2.2 million inhabits.

At the end of First World War in 1919 Denmark had exceeded 3 million. The same growth also happened in many other European countries and is often described as “the demographic transition”.

“The demographic transition” was the change from high rates of deaths and births, that was seen in developing countries. Denmark was bit late in the transition compared to other European countries.

The reason for this large increase in population was also due to rising prosperity improved nutrition and health status in the countryside created a birth surplus

In 1870 a fourth of the population lived in the cities. 50 years later it was close to half of the citizens that lived in larger cities.

Especially Copenhagen received particularly many newcomers and had around the same number citizens as the other provincial towns together.

From 1870 to 1914, the city grew by about half a million. inhabitants from 198,000 to 614,000, in 1885 only just over half of Copenhageners were born in the city.

A large construction activity erected rental properties and factories between each other in the new “bro” neighbourhoods outside the ramparts.

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