Animal farm by George Orwell is a book about an animal farm rebelling against the human farmer, Mr. Jones, who owns the farm. A late-night Old Major (oldest pig on the farm) gathered the animals to start a rebellion.
He wanted to create a society for the animals without humans controlling them, hoping to make the animals happy, free, and equal.
He formed principles for the animals to live by, so they didn’t end up as humans. Old Major passed in his sleep and the leadership was soon taken over by Napoleon, Squealer and Snowball – also pigs.
- Napoleon symbolizes Stalin. He isn’t interested in the rebellion of the farm itself but only his part in it, i.e., what kind of power he gets from it.
He uses brutal tactics to get his ways and maintain power, such as the attack dogs (secret police or military force).
- Snowball symbolizes Trotsky in his idealism and attempt to challenge Napoleons brutal tactics. Trotsky was one of Stalin’s main opponents.
- Squealer represents a right hand mand to Napoleon. Supporting his ideas and manipulating other animals with his powerful speeches, making them believe that Napoleon is right. You can even say he might represent propaganda.
- Boxer represents the Russian working class. Not many brain cells to work things out, and very naïve, but strong enough to work, and easy to manipulate because of their poverty and sympathy, which is also very clear in the book.
- Mr. Jones symbolizes Tsar Nicholas II, a bad and incompetent ruler, who neglected his people which led to his downfall and Stalin’s corruption i.e., the rebellion in the book.
- Mollie is a good representation of the Russian middle and upper classes. She refuses to work on the farm and wouldn’t give up certain luxuries such as being cared for and fed sugar.
She would rather have that than fight with the other animals. She also represents the wealthy leaving when tax fares rose to support the poor people without jobs.